Viruses, how they are contracted and their effects

Agent

Natural Source

Other food or drink vectors Incubation period Typical patient Symptoms and signs Estimated annual number of cases in US (1994-97) Estimated annual number of deaths in US
Salmonella Chickens, eggs, ducks, turkeys Many prepared foods notably cooked meats, bean sprouts 18 hrs - 2 days Anyone, especially the very young and old Diarrhea, abdominal pains 2-4 million 400
Campylobacter spp Poultry meat, unpasteur- ised milk Water 5-7 days Particularly young healthy adults. Immunity can develop Bloody diarrhea, abdominal pain 2-4 million 120-360
Listeria monocytogenes Soil, animal manure, water Chilled and processed foods, soft crusted cheeses, cooked chicken, pate, salamis, recipe (cook-chilli) meals, also salads 5 days - 5 weeks Pregnant women, elderly, immuno- compromised, also some young healthy adults Flu-like illness in pregnancy, stillbirth, septicemia. Few gut symptoms 1600 415
E. coli Cattle Burgers, sausages ? days Children Enteritis, kidney failure 25,000 100
Bacillus cereus Widely in environment Take-out fried rice 6 - 18 hrs Anyone Diarrhea, abdominal pain 3000 1
Clostridium botulinum Soil, vegetables, fish Defective canned items of vegetables or fish, processed meat and vegetables
12 - 18 hrs Anyone Progressive paralysis of motor nerves 30-50 2
Clostridium perfringens Intestines of mammals, including man Stews, minces, anaerobic food 12 - 24 hrs Anyone Diarrhea, abdominal pain 10,000 1
Staphylococcus aureus Noses, groins, intestines of mammals including man, birds Cream cooked meats, custards, moist processed foods 1 - 3 hrs Anyone Vomiting, sometimes severe, with blood 10,000 2