When Pigs Cry
A Report on the USA Pig Industry
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2 National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS). Agricultural Statistics 2001.
3 Smith, Rod. Pork producers stringing together successful years but changing herd, other 'wrinkles' need watching. Feedstuffs Magazine, November 5, 2001.
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6 Halverson, Marlene. The Price We Pay for Corporate Hogs. Copyright 2000: Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy. Page 15.
7 NASS, Agricultural Statistics Board. Quarterly Hogs and Pigs: U.S. Hog Inventory Up 2 percent. Released March 30, 2001.
8 Kilborn, Peter T. Hurricane Reveals Flaws in Farm Law. New York Times. October 17, 1999.
9 Warrick, Joby and Stith, Pat. Boss Hog 4: The Smell of Money. News & Observer. February 25, 1995. Available at http://archive.nandotimes.com/sproject/hogs/4region.html. Accessed June 11, 2001.
10 Lancaster, John. For Big Hog Farms, Big Subsidies. Washington Post, August 17, 2001. Available at http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A21924-2001Aug16. Accessed August 17, 2001.
11 Barlett, Donald L., Steele, James B. The Empire of the Pigs. Time Magazine. November 30, 1998.
12 Pork Powerhouses 2001. Successful Farming, October 2001.
13 USA Pork Exports Hit New High.Belfast News Letter, March 10, 2001. http://www.myswine.com/2001/03/10/BFNL/0000-7621-KEYWORD.Missing.html. Accessed June 13, 2001.
14 Vu, Tina. Canadian Feeder Pigs Arriving in U.S. In Droves, USDA Warns. Available at http://www.meatingplace.com/meatingplace/Archives/oop/qnohit_g.asp?ID=7639. Accessed June 26, 2001.
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17 Groenestein, C.M. Welfare-friendly housing and ammonia emissions. Pig Progress, Vol. 16, No.3, 2000.
18 Swine. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001. Available at http://www.bartleby.com/65/sw/swine.html. Accessed June, 2001.
19 National Research Council. The Use of Drugs in Food Animals: Benefits and Risks. National Academy of Sciences; 1999.
20 Taylor, Robert E., and Field, Thomas G. Scientific Farm Animal Production. Prentice-Hall, New Jersey; 1998.
21 Wolfson, David J. Beyond the Law. Farm Sanctuary; 1999.
22 Brasher, Philip. U.S. to hire veterinarians for humane slaughterhouses. The Inquirer, Philadelphia Newspapers. November 3, 2001. Available at http://inq.philly.com/content/inquirer/2001/11/03/national/SLAUGHTER03.htm. Accessed November 3, 2001.
23 Florida Pigs Need YOU! Farm Sanctuary Newsletter. Spring 2001.
24 Pig Cruelty Exposed. Available at http://www.goveg.com/pigcase.html. Accessed November 16, 2001.
25 Lean, I.J. Pigs.
Management and Welfare of Farm Animals, 1994, UFAW.
27 Estienne, Mark. Advantages to Using Artificial Insemination in Swine Breeding Programs, Livestock Update, September 1999. Virginia Cooperative Extension. Available at http://www.ext.vt.edu/news/periodicals/livestock/aps-99_09/aps-0123.html. Accessed June 19, 2001.
28 USDA. 2001. Part I: Reference of Swine Health and Management in the United States, 2000, National Animal Health Monitoring System. Fort Collins, CO. #N338.0801.
29 Whittemore, Colin. The Science and Practice of Pig Production, Second Edition. Oxford, England: Blackwell Science Ltd., 1998.
30 Spinka, Marek; Duncan, Ian; Widowski, Tina M. Do domestic pigs prefer short-term to medium-term confinement? Applied Animal Behaviour Science 58 (1998) 221-232.
31 Harmon, Jay, et. al. Swine Breeding and Gestation Facilities Handbook. MidWest Plan Service. MWPS-43, 2001.
32 Vieuille-Thomas, Carolina; Le Pape, G.; Signoret, J.P. Stereotypies in pregnant sows: indications of influence of the housing system on the patterns expressed by the animals. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 44 (1995) 19 - 27.
33 Lawrence, Alistar B.; Terlouw, E.M. Claudia. A Review of Behavioral Factors Involved in the Development and Continued Performance of Stereotypic Behavior in Pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 1993. 71:2815-2825.
34 Bergeron, R.; Gonyou, H.W.; Eurell, T.E. Behavioral and physiological responses of Meishan, Yorkshire and crossbred gilts to conventional and turn-around gestation stalls. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 1996;76: 289-297.
35 Geld, John. WHAT THE TEXTBOOKS DON'T TELL YOU...About Culling. Pig Progress Vol. 16, No. 3. 2000.
36 The Welfare of Intensively Kept Pigs: Report of the Scientific Veterinary Committee of the European Commission. Adopted 30 September 1997 Doc XXIV/B3/ScVC/0005/1997 http://europa.eu.int/comm/food/fs/sc/oldcomm4/out17_en.html
37 Grondalen, Trygve. Leg Weakness in Pigs. Acta Vet. Scand. 1974, 15, 555-573.
38 Rollin, Bernard E. Farm Animal Welfare: Social, Bioethical, and Research Issues. Iowa State University Press; 1995.
39 Compassion in World Farming. More than half a million call for cruel sow stall ban (6/18/2001).
40 Compassion in World Farming. Pig Farming Reforms Hailed as massive step forward for animal welfare (6/19/2001).
41 Kaufman, Marc. In Pig Farming, Growing Concern, Raising Sows in Crates Is Questioned. Washington Post, June 18, 2001.
42 Grimes, G. (1998). Videotaped interview. And On This Farm. Field Pictures, Inc.
43 Stalder, Ken. Getting a Handle on Sow Herd Dropout Rates. National Hog Farmer. January 15, 2001.
44 Wilson, Keith, DVM. Sow Mortality Frustrates Experts. National Hog Farmer. June 15, 2001.
45 The Welfare of pigs. Eurogroup for animal welfare. 6 Rue des Patriotes, 1000 Brussels, Belgium. Tel +32 2 740 08 20.
46 Smith, Lewis W. Forum - Observing Swine Behavior To Lower Piglet Mortality. Agricultural Research Magazine (USDA), June 2001. Available at http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/AR/archive/jun01/form0601.htm. Accessed June 7, 2001.
47 Satchell, Michael. Hog Heaven - And Hell, Pig farming has gone high tech, and that's creating new pollution woes. U.S. News & World Report. 1/22/96 120(3):55.
48 Singleton, Wayne; Bodman, Gerald R.; Levis, Don. Individuals Mating Facilities for Swine. Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service 6/92. Available at http://www.genome.iastate.edu/edu/PIH/69.html. Accessed June 19, 2001.
49 Universities Federation for Animal Welfare. Annual Report 2000 - 2001.
50 Taylor, Allison A.; Weary, Daniel M.; Lessard, Martin; Braithwaite, Leah. Behavioural responses if piglets to castration: the effect of piglet age. Applied Animal Behavior Science 2001;73(1):35-43.
51 Arnold, Tom. Health Canada halts sale of pig drug. National Post, with files from The Canadian Press April 10, 2001; National Post August 11, 2001. Available at http://www.nationalpost.com/search/story.html?f=/stories/20010811/642713.html. Accessed on August 15, 2001.
52 Danley-Greiner, Kristin. Anti-Inflammatory Agent Boosts Piglet Growth. Available at www.agweb.com/sig_printer.asp?file=AgNewsArticle_2001618157_3913. Accessed June 19, 2001.
53 Raine, Michael. Hormone injection gets hogs to market sooner. Available athttp://www.producer.com/articles/20011108/news/20011108news22.html. Accessed on November 9, 2001.
54 Bieszk, Jerry. Big Pigs -- New Drug in Feed Boosts U.S. Hog Size. Reuters Science, Monday November 19, 2001. Available at http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/nm/20011119/sc/food_hogs_paylean_dc_1.html. Accessed on November 29, 2001.
55 Animal Welfare Can Now Be "Objectively" Measured. Available athttp://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2001/06/010605072051.htm. Accessed on June 12, 2001.
56 McPhee CP, Laws L. An analysis of leg abnormalities of boars in the queensland performance testing station. Australian Veterinary Journal 1976;52:123-125.
57 Mavromichalis, Joannis. Research into practice. Pig Progress, Vol. 16, No.4 2000).
58 Pajor, E.A.; Busse, S.; Torrey, S.; Shea-Moore, M.; Stewart, T. The Effect of Selection for Lean Growth on Swine Behavior and Welfare. Purdue University 2000 Swine Day Report. Available at www.ansc.purdue.edu/swine/ Accessed on June 19, 2001.
59 Cantera, Kevin. Farm plans burial for thousands of swine killed in fire. Salt Lake Tribune. July 31, 2001.
60 USDA, Animal and Plant Inspection Service, Veterinary Services. Part II: Reference of 1995 U.S. Grower/Finisher Health & Management Practices, June 1996.
61 USDA. Animal Research Magazine. High-Tech Spying - on Livestock. Available at: http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/AR/archive/jun01/spy0601.htm Accessed June 21, 2001.
62 Grandin, Temple. Survey of Stunning and Handling in Federally Inspected Beef, Veal, Pork, and Sheep Slaughter Plants. USDA Agricultural Research Service January 7, 1997.
63 Eisnitz, Gail A. Slaughterhouse: The Shocking Story of Greed, Neglect, and Inhumane Treatment Inside of the U.S. Meat Industry. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1997.
64 Food Safety Virtual University, FSIS, USDA. Livestock Carcass Disposition Review. Antemortem Conditions with Central Nervous System Signs. Available at http://220.127.116.11/courses/lcdr/cns/cns10.html. Accessed April 3, 2001.
65 USDA, FSIS. Animal Disposition Reporting Systems (ADRS) Swine Condemned Antemortem in USDA Inspected Establishments Period: Fiscal Year 1998. Available at http://www.fsis.usda.gov/ophs/adrsdata/1998adrs/amswfy98.htm. Accessed March 1, 2001.
66 E-mail correspondence with Dr. Michael Fisher, USDA, FSIS, TSC on April 25, 2001.
67 Grandin, Temple. Methods to reduce PSE and bloodsplash. Veterinary Outreach Programs, University of Minnesota, October 2000. Available at www.grandin.com/references.swine.html. Accessed on June 22, 2001.
68 Grandin T. Before the kill floor. Meat & Poultry. 1997(Mar):36-40.
69 Grandin, Temple Dr. Troubleshooting electrical stunning. Meat & Poultry. January 2001.
70 Warrick, Joby. 'They Die Piece by Piece.' Washington Post, April 10, 2001. Available at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn.articles/A60798-2001 Apr9.html. Accessed on April 10, 2001.
71 Food Safety Inspection
Service, USDA. Module 12: Swine Inspection (305). March 2000.
73 Brasher, Philip. U.S. to hire veterinarians for humane slaughterhouses. The Inquirer, Philadelphia Newspapers. November 3, 2001. Available at http://inq.philly.com/content/inquirer/2001/11/03/national/SLAUGHTER03.htm. Accessed November 3, 2001.
74 Brasher, Philip. USDA Under Fire for Livestock Law. Associated Press, June 13, 2001.
75 Gay, Lance. Faulty practices result in inhumane slaughterhouses. Scripps Howard News Service. January 30, 2001.
76 Phone conversation with Carol Blake with Public Affairs in USDA, FSIS on May 30, 2001.
77 Reuters. US: Meat inspectors say USDA ignores Humane Slaughter Act. June 13, 2001.
78 Sierra Club. Spoiled Lunch: Polluters Profiting from Federal Lunch Programs. Chapter 1: Violations of Environmental Laws. Available at http://www.sierraclub.org/factoryfarms/report01/ch1.asp. Accessed June 13, 2001.
79 Schlosser, Eric. Fast Food Nation. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001.
80 Stith, Pat; Warrick, Joby. Boss Hog 5: Who's in charge? News & Observer. February 26, 1995. Available at http://archive.nandotimes.com/sproject/hogs/5who.html. Accessed June 11, 2001.
81 Sierra Club. Spoiled Lunch: Polluters Profiting from Federal Lunch Programs. Chapter 3: Worker Health and Safety and Labor Law Violations. Available at http://www.sierraclub.org/factoryfarms/report01/ch3.asp. Accessed June 13, 2001.
82 Wright, Andrew G. Waste Management. Engineering News, October 4, 1999.
83 Morrow, W.E. Morgan; Ferket, P.R.; Middleton, T. Carcass disposal a growing concern. Pig Progress Vol. 17, No. 1. 2001.
84 Muchnick, Barry Ross; Teran, Julio Cesar. A Citizen's Guide to Rural Zoning for Industrial Swine Facility Waste Lagoons in Oklahoma. The Kerr Center for Sustainable Agriculture.
85 Fretwell, Sammy. Big pig farm ban gains support in Legislature. Associated Press. April 25, 2001. Available at http://web.thestate.com/content/columbia/2001/04/25/local/hog2525.htm. Accessed on April 25, 2001.
86 EPA-821-B-01-001 January 2001 Environmental Assessment of Proposed Revisions to the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Regulation and the Effluent Guidelines for Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations.
87 Leavenworth, Stuart; Shiffer, James Eli. Hog farms pose risks of waste spills and runoff, but that's not all. The ammonia rising from lagoons could be even more hazardous. News & Observer, July 5, 1998. Available at http://www.all4democracy.org/hogscandals/1998/7-8-98hogammoniareport.htm. Accessed June 25, 2001.
88 Friday, William H.; Jones, Don D.; Muehling, Arthur J.; Murphy, J. Pat. Swine Farrowing Handbook Housing and Equipment - MWPS-40. Midwest Plan Service, Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Department. First Edition, 1992.
89 Vergano, Dan. Science sniffs out solutions for the swine next door Suburban sprawl bumps up against pig farms. USA Today, March 21, 2001.
90 Vander Wal, Gretchen. 44 States Regulate Odors on Hog Farms. National Hog Farmer, March 15, 2001.
91 Lipsky, Joshua. Perdue, Smithfield Subsidiary Fined for Environmental Violations, 6/14/2001. Available at http://www.meatingplace.com/meatingplace/Archives/oop/qnohit_g.asp?ID=7593. Accessed June 14, 2001.
92 Hogwatch. North Carolina's Largest Hog Producers. Available at http://www.hogwatch.org/resourcecenter/producerprofiles.html . Accessed on June 11, 2001.
93 Environmental News Network. Nebraska meatpacking plant fined for 13 years of environmental violations. October 16, 2001. Available at http://www.enn.com/news/enn-stories/2001/10/10162001/meat_45263.asp. Accessed on October 24, 2001.
94 Clean Air Report. October 24, 2001 EPA Settlement Sets Model for Waste Lagoon Air Enforcement. InsideEPA.com Accessed October 2001.
95 Tyson News Releases. IBP Shareholders Approve Acquisition. Available at (www.tyson.com/corporate news/viewNews.asp?article=844). Accessed on October 22, 2001.
96 Tyson Company Information. Tyson Today. Available at (www.tyson.com/corporate/info/today.asp). Accessed on October 22, 2001.
97 Magsam, John. Some point to dumping as evidence rules weak. Arkansas Democrat-Gazette. March 27, 1999.
98 Protecting Colorado's Water and Economy, Inc. Corporate Hog Farms: A Track Record of Contamination.
99 Duxbury, Robin. Letter to members of Animal Rights Mobilization.
100 Protecting Colorado's Water and Economy. Save Colorado's Water - Vote YES on 113. Stop Corporate Hog Farms from Destroying Colorado's Water.
101 Hog farm spill killed 5,700 fish, state agency says. Indianapolis Star. Available at www.starnews.com/cgi-bin/print.php3. Accessed on July 26, 2001.
102 Iowa: Lawler. USA Today, July 26, 2001 page 7A.
103 Meersman, Tom. Olivia-area hog operation continues to violate air rules. Minneapolis Star Tribune, June 14, 2001.
104 Jones, Jack. Strong odor of protest greets Yates hog farms. Rochester News, June 10, 2001.
105 North Carolina Fines Five Major Hog Farms For Environmental Law Violations. Associated Press, January 28, 2001. Available at http://www.spcnetwork.com/mii/2001/010154.htm. Accessed January 29, 2001.
106 Hinton, Mick. Hog farm assessed record fine. NewsOK.com, 11-09-2001. Available at wwwnewsok.com. Accessed November 9, 2001.
107 Ford, Brian. Hog farm cited for violations. World Capitol Bureau, February 27, 2001.
108 Hinton, Mick. Water overwhelms hog farm neighbors. The Oklahoman, 06-17-2001. Available at www.oklahoman.com.
109 Spears, Tom. Pig Farms Produce 'Toxic' Problem: Great Lakes Scientists Grapple With Polluting Effects of Animal Waste. The Ottawa Citizen, October 20, 2001.
110 Sierra Club. Spoiled Lunch: Polluters Profiting from Federal Lunch Programs. Chapter 2: Contaminated Food Incidents. Available at http://www.sierraclub.org/factoryfarms/report01/ch2.asp. Accessed on June 13, 2001.
111 Pork producers warn: $10 billion needed for conservation compliance. The Meating Place News, Meat Marketing & Technology (MMT) Magazine, May 2001. Available at www.meatingplace.com. Accessed on June 15, 2001.
112 Murphy, Dan. USDA to Pay $125 Million in Emergency Funds to Pork Producers; 6/24/99. Available at www.meatplace.com. Accessed on November 21, 2001.
113 Waterkeeper Alliance. Grassroots Battle to Hold Industrial Hog Factories Accountable Gains National Momentum: February 28, 2001. Available at: http://www.keeper.org/hogfight/press/010228.htm. Accessed on July 23, 2001.
114 Freese, Betsy. Making moves in Mexico. Successful Farming, September 2001. Available at http://www.agriculture.com/sfonline/sf2001/october/0111pork_powerhouses.html. Accessed on October 8, 2001.
115 North Carolina State Bill. H. 1312. Available http://www.ncga.state.nc.us. Accessed on July 3, 2001.
116 Holland, Jennifer. S.C. Governor Imposes Moratorium on Large Hog Farms. Associated Press, April 23, 2001.
118 Krotz, David. Hog ordinance on hold. Globe Gazette. Available at http://www.globegazette.com/news/2001/062001/week2/12/Ni1.shtml. Accessed on June 20, 2001.
119 Farm or Factory? Residents say loophole paves way for corporate hog farm. TheTimesOnline; October 13, 2001. Available at http://archive.nextwerk.com/WebPublishe...002b2aca878625ae50000e692?OpenDocument. Accessed October 17, 2001.
120 Wing, Steve; Cole, Dana; Grant, Gary. Environmental Injustice in North Carolina's Hog Industry. Environmental Health Perspectives 2000;108(Mar 3):225-231.
121 Wing, Steve; Wolf, Susanne. Intensive Livestock Operations, Health, and Quality of Life among Eastern North Carolina Residents. Environmental Health Perspectives 2000;108(3):233-238.
122 Levy SB. Multidrug resistance--a sign of the times. N Engl J Med. 1998 May 7;338(19):1376-8.
123 National Academies News. Antibiotic use in food animals contributes to microbe resistance. July 9, 1998. Available at http://www4.nationalacademies.org/news.nsf/isbn/0309054346?OpenDocument. Accessed June 5, 2001.
124 Patten-Hitt, Ph.D, Emma. Swine Farms Linked to Antibiotic-Resistant Bugs. Reuters 2001. http://dailynews.yahoo.com/htx/nm/20010509/hl/swines_1.html. Accessed in May, 2001.
125 National Research Council. The Use of Drugs in Food Animals: Benefits and Risks. National Academy of Sciences; 1999.
126 Drug Resistance Threatens to Reverse Medical Progress. The World Health Organization. June 12, 2000. Available at http://www.who.int/inf-pr-2000.en/pr2000-41.html. Accessed November 9, 2001.
127 White DG, Zhao S, Sudler R, Ayers S, Friedman S, Chen S, McDermott PF, McDermott S, Wagner DD, Meng J. The isolation of antibiotic-resistant salmonella from retail ground meats. N Engl J Med. 2001 Oct 18;345(16):1147-54.
128 Chee-Sanford JC, Aminov RI, Krapac IJ, Garrigues-Jeanjean N, Mackie RI. Occurrence and diversity of tetracycline resistance genes in lagoons and groundwater underlying two swine production facilities. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2001 Apr;67(4):1494-502.
129 Dargatz, David A., Wells, Scott J., Fedorka-Cray, Paula J., Akkina, Judy. The Veterinarian's Role in Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention of Multidrug Resistance Salmonella typhimurium DT104. USDA, APHIS, VS, CEAH. Bovine Practitioner, May 1998.
130 Vansickle, Joe. Feed Additives On The Hot Seat. National Hog Farmer, January 15, 2001.
131 Antibiotic-resistant genes traced from farms to groundwater. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, May 1, 2001. Available at http://www.eurekaalert.org/releases.uiuc-arg04001.html. Accessed in May, 2001.
132 Associated Press 6/20/01. AMA Urges Phasing Out "Non-therapeutic' Antibiotic use in Livestock. Available at http://www.al.com/newsflash.index.ssf?/sgi-free/getstory_ssf.cgi?f0427_BC_AMA-Antibi. Accessed June 21, 2001.
133 McDonald LC, Rossiter S, Mackinson C, Wang YY, Johnson S, Sullivan M, Sokolow R, DeBess E, Gilbert L, Benson JA, Hill B, Angulo FJ. Quinupristin-dalfopristin-resistant Enterococcus faecium on chicken and in human stool specimens. N Engl J Med. 2001 Oct 18;345(16):1155-60.
134 Salvage, Bryan. Opposing Coalitions Battle Over Antibiotic Use in Food Animals. Available at www.meatingplace.com. Accessed on November 9, 2001.
135 Pig Progress. Health concerns revealed: USA. Pig Progress Vol. 16 No. 5. 2000.
136 Ohio State. Swine Topics. Available at http://ati.ag.ohio-state.edu/~atiswine/swinediseases2001.html. Accessed on June 8, 2001.
138 Wooten, Dr. Michael, DVM. Pseudorabies Virus (PRV). USDA Veterinary Services, North Carolina, March 19, 1997. Available at http://www.aphis.usda.gov/nc/vs/prv.html. Accessed on June 7, 2001.
139 Vansickle, Joe. Crunch Time. National Hog Farmer, March 15, 2001. Available at www.industryclick.com. Accessed on June 11, 2001.
140 California Department of Food and Agriculture. Animal Health Fact Sheet. Animal Health and Food Safety Services: Pseudorabies. May 1998. Available at http://www.cdfa.ca.gov/animal/animal_health/fact_pseudorabies.html. Accessed June 7, 2001.
141 Collins, Richard, DVM. Keeping Pseudorabies Out. National Hog Farmer. March 15, 2000.
142 Vansickle, Joe. USDA Authorizes Pseudorabies Buyout. National Hog Farmer, February 15, 1999.
143 Mcorist, Steven; Smith, Sionagh H.; Collins, Alison M. Ileitis & Lawsonia intracellularis. Available at http://pighealth.com/ileitis.htm. Accessed on May 29, 2001.
144 Veterinarians speak out on ileitis. National Hog Farmer, May 15, 2001. Available at industryclick.com.
145 Taylor, DJ. (Professor of Veterinary Bacteriology and Public Health, Glasgow University), Pig diseases. 7th edition, 1999, self-published by Dr. D.J. Taylor 41 North Birbiston Road, Lennoxtown, Glasgow G66 7LZ.
146 Muirhead, Mike. Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome - Summary From St. Malo Conference, September 2001. Available at www.PigSite.com. Accessed on October 17, 2001.
147 UN Scientist Warns of Devastating Pig Disease. Available at http://www.plant.uoguelph.ca/safefood/archives/animalnet-archives.htm. Accessed on November 18, 2001.
148 Wade, Guy West. Scours - common causes to watch out for. Pig Farming, May 1998.
149 Ross, Richard; Hill, Michael; Wood, Richard L. Herd Health Swine Arthritis PIH-36. Herd Health. Purdue University, Cooperative Extension Service. Available at http://www.genome.iastate.edu/edu/PIH/36.html. Accessed on June 11, 2001.
150 Center for Emerging Issues/USDA/APHIS. Porcine Dermatitis and Nephropathy Syndrome. March 2001. Available at http://www.aphis.usda.gov/vs/ceah/cei/pdns_0301.htm. Accessed on June 7, 2001.
151 Food Safety Virtual University, FSIS, USDA. Livestock Carcass Disposition Review. Parasitic-Pigmentary. Available at http://18.104.22.168/courses/lcdr/parasitic/para4.html. Accessed on June 11, 2001.
152 USDA, Veterinary Services. Classical Swine Fever, January 1999. Available at http://www.aphis.usda.gov/oa/pubs/fscsf.htm. Accessed on June 11, 2001.
153 Hetherington, Peter; Brown, Paul. 2,000 case of foot and mouth confirmed. The Guardian, September 4, 2001. Available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/Archive/Article/0,4273,4250154,00.html. Accessed on November 21, 2001.